The Present Perfect Continuous المضارع التام المستمر

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Dy11DuHCFio/UqWgYOpin0I/AAAAAAAABLM/DqUnA6iVQnk/s1600/present_PERFECT.png

Adham: Where are you, Ahmed? I have been waiting for you for hours.
Ahmed : I am sorry, the road is very busy, and the traffic moves very slowly .
Adham : Why didn't you leave your home earlier?
Ahmed :  Earlier than 4 P.M ? 
Adham : Have you been driving since 4 P.M? 
Ahmed : Yes, I have. I have been driving for two hours now . 
Adham: Oh, alright. No problem then, I will wait . 
Ahmed: Sorry dear.  
Adham : No problem, my friend. See you after a while.
Ahmed: Alright, bye ! 

--------------------------------


At Zatoonet El-Enlgeezy, we learned  that we use the Present Simple to talk about actions relevant to Present, Past simple to talk about actions that happened in the past, and Future Simple to talk about actions that will happen in the future. But, what if we want to talk about an action that has started in the past, hasn't finished yet, and may continue to the future? 


في زتونة الإنجليزي خدنا المضارع البسيط عشان نوصف الاحداث اللي ليها علاقة بالحاضر وخدنا الماضي عشان نقدر نتكلم عن اللي فات وخدنا المستقبل عشان نوصف اللي هيحصل في المستقبل.. بس نعمل ايه لو حبينا نتكلم عن احداث بدأت في الماضي، لسه مخلصتش في الحاضر، وممكن تكمل للمستقبل كمان ؟!

Can we have one tense to combine all these three tenses together in a meaningful sentence ?  The answer is Yes, we can ! 

هل في زمن واحد يجمع ال 3 ازمنة دول في جملة ليها معنى ؟

أيوة .. والزمن هو المضارع التام المستمر

The Present Perfect Continuous is a tense that combines all these tenses together. Let's reread the dialogue and analyse it . 

خلينا نحلل الحوار اللي حصل بين أحمد أودهم 

The dialogue starts with a question asked by Adham expressing that he is annoyed from Ahmed's late. Moreover, Adham states it clearly that he has been staying in the street for 2 hours waiting for Ahmed. This means that Adham's action of "staying"started 2 hours ago (Past),  was still happening at that time of speaking and unfinished (Present), and it will continue in the future ( Future). 

 الحوار بيبدأ بسؤال بيسأله أدهم بيعبر عن كونه متضايق من تأخير احمد عليه .. أدهم استنى أحمد ساعتين في الشارع وده معناه ان الحدث (انتظار ادهم لأحمد)  حصل من ساعتين (ماضي) وكان مستمر ساعتها ومخلصش(مضارع)  وبما ان احمد لسه مجاش يبقا انتظار أدهم هيستمر للمستقبل كمان
Another use of the Present Perfect Continuous is to talk about actions that has RECENTLY finished , and has an effect in the present.


في استخدام تاني لل Present Perfect Continuous بيتخلص في اننا نقدر نستخدمه عشان نتكلم عن الاحداث لسه خلصانة من شوية ! 


ناخد مثال 

Adham : Why do you look tired, Ahmed ? 
Ahmed : I have been working all afternoon.

أدهم بيسأل احمد شكله تعبان ليه .. واحمد بيرد انه كان بيشتغل من بعد الضهر

Here we see that the action has finished.
وهنا باين ان الحدث انتهى 

Ahmed finished studying, yet he looks tired because  the action of  working for a long time still has its effect on Ahmed. 
لكن انتهى وليه أثر على احمد وهو ان احمد تعبان وده معناه ان الشغل انتهى قريب جدا 

Now you are thinking of a question.......

 What is the difference between Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous in this use?
 دلوقتي انت بتفكر ايه الفرق بين الاستخدام ده وبين ال Present Perfect  ال خدته مع أحمد طارق و ال Present Perfect Continuous

Simply, there is no big difference in this use. However, the Present Perfect Continuous focuses more on the time duration rather than the action itself. While the Present Perfect, on the other hand, focuses on the action itself not its time (Remember : We don't use present perfect with time indications at all . ) Sentences like (I have seen this movie yesterday) is grammatically wrong !


فعلا مفيش فروقات  كتير بين الزمنين في الاستخدام ، لكن ال  Present Perfect Continuous بيركز اكتر على مدة الحدث مش الحدث نفسه ..
وال Present Perfect بيركز على الحدث نفسه مش مدته   .. ده كمان غلط نتستخدم اي اشارات للوقت مع ال Present Perfect 
زي مثال I have seen this movie Yesterday X
                I have watched the match         

Now check this chart, and pay attention to the formation of the Present Perfect Continuous in Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.  

دلوقتي شوف بنكون المضارع التام المستمر ازاي 


لاحظ اننا بنضيف قبل الفعل الاساسي  Have or has+pp عشان نكون المضارع التام  وبنضيف على الفعل ده ing عشان يبقا مستمر وبالتالي يبقا عندنا جملة مضارع تام مستمر 

http://english.sordum.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/present_perfect_continuous.png


Now watch how present perfect continuous is used in movies ;) 



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